Category Archives: Build It & Learn It Workshops

Sun Science Workshop Part Two

This is Part Two of our Sun Science Workshop we hosted in the park this past July.  I began writing this story last August and have had this half of the story in draft mode ever since.  I thought it was high time I get it posted.  I had tons of pictures and it was so hard to choose which pictures to share in this story, but here are just a few.   We had a great turn out of kids and parents at this workshop, and it was lots of hands on learning fun.

                    Sun Science Workshop

Sun Science Workshop Part One: Sunprint Fabric Squares
      Capture the power of the sun to make reverse photography on sunprint fabric 
Click on the link above to read about our fun adventure making sunprints.


Sun Science Workshop Part Two: Solar Power
    Learn about solar power, create solar ovens, and learn about sun safety.  Read below to 
    see part two of our adventure.  We learned to capture solar energy to power solar ovens 
    and more.

Solar Power

Activities we did to capture the power of the sun:

                  1.  Capture the energy of the sun in a small solar panel that converts 
                        the energy 
into power to operate a motor and turn a fan.  Each kid 
                        was able to hold a small 
solar panel that was wired to a motor.  The motor     
                        turned an axel.  The axel 
rotated and turned fan blades.  I did not get a 
                        close up shot of the kids as they held the 
solar panel.  But they practiced 
                        connecting the wires on the solar panel to the receptors on the motor.  

                        Then they held the solar panel in direct sunlight, then hid it from the 
against their clothing creating an on / off effect of turning on the
                        fan.  They were able to 
see that the sun was powering the motor with 
                        energy when they exposed the panel to direct 


                            You can see a video similar to our experiment here:

                  2.  Capture the energy of the sun in a gallon jar of water.  
                        The energy heats the water and tea bags to make sun tea.  
                        We brought sugar and the kids and parents could drink it 
                        plain or sweetened.  


                  3.  Captured the energy of the sun by using a reflective shield.  

                        Placed a pint jar filled with solid chocolate bars in the center of the reflective 
                        shield.   The 
energy of the sun reflected off the shield and into the jar, 
                        warming the 
chocolate and the air inside the jar, and we made melted 
                        chocolate or fondue.

                  4.  Captured the energy of the sun in homemade solar ovens.  
We captured the energy of the sun to make gooey smores, cheesy
                        nachos, and “limp” cookies.   


Making solar ovens: 
Materials needed for each child (individual, team, or family): empty pizza box or shoe box, foil, black construction paper, straw, plastic food wrap, paper plate, scissors, glue stick, glue, masking tape. Can use rolled up newspaper or bubble wrap to help insulate (we did not insulate ours at the workshop, but insulating will prevent heat loss through the cracks and lesson the loss due to wind).

Make a window flap in the top of the lid.  Measure and draw a line 1 to 2 inches in from the edge of the lid on all sides.   Cut 3 of the lines on the outer sides, but do not cut the line that is closest to the hinged lid.  After cutting, fold backwards on the uncut line.  This will become your hinge for the window flap.  

Line the inside of the pizza box and the window flap with aluminum foil.  Attach the foil to the box using a non toxic glue such as Elmer’s glue.  Press the foil down and make it lay flat and smooth. We used a small paint roller to press the foil down gently without tearing the foil.  


Place masking tape along the edges of the box. This is optional, but it helps reduce the loss of hot air and creates less friction when opening and closing the box.

Place a sheet of black construction paper in the bottom of the box. Be sure that it is directly centered with the window flap. You can attache the paper with glue or leave it unattached.


Cover the window with two or more layers of clear plastic wrap. Attache the edges of the plastic wrap to the edges of the window you cut earlier.  Stretch it as tight as you can and seal it to the edges with glue and / or tape.


Make a window brace.  Attach a straw to the window flap and place a small cut in the surface of the lid near the window.  Do not cut the plastic of the window.  Use the straw as a brace to keep the window flap open by placing the edge of the straw in the small cut.  You can also make a stopper by placing a wad of tape or a small piece of folded paper taped to the box lid.   


Place homemade solar oven in the sun with the lid closed.  This is optional.  Be sure the window flap is open and the oven is facing the sun to allow it to warm for a few minutes.  

Place food inside the the oven on the black paper. 


Position oven with the window flap “open”  to face the maximum sun exposure.  Be sure to brace open the window flap.  Also be sure you don’t look directly at the reflection of the sun in the shield.  It is harmful to the eyes just as looking up at the sun directly can be.

EAT, when the food has reached the desired temperature or melting point.  Be patient, the rewards are worth it!  Use hot pads when removing hot pans from the ovens if needed.  These little box ovens reach about 160 degrees, and some better made sun ovens can reach 500 degrees.  We did this experiment baking nachos at home a few weeks before bringing it to the workshop and my kids measured the temperature with a thermometer over the course of two to three hours.  I will post another story about our experiment soon.  So be cautious and safe when cooking in a sun oven.



We also attempted to bake cookie dough in a muffin tin, inside a plastic “baking” bag, and surrounded with a reflective funnel made from a window sun shield. (see how to do this on the video linked below).

It was a windy day, and the shield kept blowing down.  Our cookies never heated hot enough to become crispy and that is why I nicknamed them limp cookies.  It is possible to get crispy cookies if you can heat them long enough. These pizza box ovens heated at 160 degrees and were able to melt foods, but not bake foods unless left for a long time, approximately 4 hours or more to bake the cookies. We only tried to bake them for about 1 hour and it was very windy and we lost a lot of heat to the wind.  We needed a better insulated oven to maintain a constant temperature and higher heat.  The funnel oven would have compensated for that if the wind had not constantly blown down our reflective funnel.  A funnel oven is superior to teh pizza box oven and it can reach 350 degrees or more if set up right.    I have seen a video of a  “funnel” oven cook desert and a side dish for a Sunday / Father’s Day dinner.  This family started the dinner before leaving for church and left the food to cook for several hours.  They used two kinds of sun ovens, one a commercial box style, and one a cheap homemade funnel style. The dinner included brownies, bbq chicken, brownies, and a sweet potato side dish, and a fresh salad from their garden.  So it does work under the right circumstances.   

Check out the video to see how the solar funnel oven works.

                                        SUN SAFETY

We discussed Sun Safety and the necessity of protection from sun burn or over exposure.

                  1.  limit daily sun exposure
                  2.  wear sun glasses to protect eyes
                  3.  wear broad rimmed hats
                  4.  wear protective clothing
                  5.  wear sunscreen, and reapply sunscreen when playing in water
                  6.  be sure to wear hot pads on your hands if you are 
                        baking in a sun oven. Some solar ovens can get very hot.


Every family took home a free bottle of Coppertone Water Babies Sunscreen.


Fellowship, Food, and Fun


We ate pizza, sandwiches, casseroles, fruits, vegetables, nuts, and yummy deserts.
We love to fellowship and enjoy eating together.


The kids love playing together on the playground.  The younger ones are quite content to use the playground for the sake of play.  The older ones often add in fun games to go along with the equipment, like king of the mountain, capture the flag, who can swing the highest and jump the farthest, and more.  I am so glad they have a fun and  safe place to play together and enjoy building friendships.



BIBLE Connection:

Genesis 1: 3-5

God said, “I command light to shine!” And light started shining. God looked at the light and saw that it was good. He separated light from darkness , and named the light “Day” and the darkness “Night.” Evening came and then morning, that was the first day.

Genesis 1: 14-19

God said, “I command lights to appear in the sky and to separate day from night and to show the time for seasons, special days, and years. I command them to shine on the earth.” And that’s what happened. God made two powerful lights, the brighter one to rule the day and the other to rule the night. He also made the stars. Then God put these lights in the sky to shine on the earth, to rule day and night, and to separate light from darkness. God looked at what he had done, and it was good. Evening came and then morning, that was the fourth day.

Luke 1: 78

God’s love and kindness will shine upon us like the sun that rises in the sky.

Feel free to have your kids look up these verses, and copy them, or memorize them.  Have them draw or paint a picture of what these verses mean to them.  Have them write down a prayer to the Lord in response to these verses.

Further The Learning

I’ll post a future unit study about the sun and post a link to the story here.  It is still in the works! (in draft mode…..oh to get caught up on everything!).

More About Our Workshops:

I am the Director of Take Action Tuesday, a volunteer program that encourages kids to learn in an hands on “active” way outdoors once a week.  To be “active” in this sense (hands on) means to be learning while playing, sitting, standing (if able), reaching, investigating, walking (if able), and moving.  Activities can be modified for those with physical limitations or special needs.  Kids of all learning levels, physical levels, and those with special needs are welcome to come and explore.  You can read several of our Take Action Tuesday stories here.  Not all of the stories are posted, and some that are posted are not listed in this list.  But this list will give you an introduction to some of our learning fun.

We spend so much time on our bottoms in our modern society (both kids and adults), learning with schoolwork, taking classes, using computers, cell phones, TV, video games and electronic gadgets, and riding on our bottoms as we travel from place to place, that we as a nation are becoming deprived in the area of physical activity. If you are not on an athletic team, or walking and biking to go places, or working on a farm, chances are you are not getting enough physical activity because most lifestyles today don’t support it.

Take Action Tuesday meets weekly in local parks to play and be active. Once a month, and some months up to four times,  Take Action Tuesday holds a Workshop series in local parks and encourages kids in learning about science, technology, engineering, mathematics, life skills, community helpers, and more. These events usually last from 2 to 3 hours.  We have had families join us from as far south as Greenville SC and as far north as Asheville NC.  Once we had a family drive their RV from the beach in SC where they were staying for the summer, drive all the way to our workshop (a four hour drive) and then drive all the way back to the beach afterwards.  How cool!  This really blessed me to know that folks are enjoying these programs and want them and are willing to drive an hour or more (four hours) to join us.  We are so excited to meet families from all over and from different walks of life.

I started this program two years ago as a way to encourage my own kids in keeping active while playing at the park, encouraging socialization and making lots of friends, and enjoying outdoor learning opportunities. We started inviting other families to come and it has grown and been an enjoyable activity for many families near and far.  Everyone is welcome to attend.

I currently receive no sponsorship.  If you would like to sponsor this program, please leave a comment below.   Donations are welcome.  Donations help pay for supplies and learning activities for the Take Action Tuesday programs such as science and art projects.  Thank you.

This post will be linked up with:

Science Sunday
No Time For Flash Cards
Sharing Time
Raising Homemakers
Domestically Divine
Health Habit

Please share.

Gutzy Gear Party and Study Skills Workshop

Well it is BACK TO SCHOOL time again.  I thought it would be fun to get the kids off to a great start in a new school year by inviting their friends to a Study Skills Workshop and Gutzy Gear Party. 


I have been hosting outdoor learning programs in the local parks for two years now.  We call them Take Action Tuesday programs.  We get together for picnics, playing games, and a learning program.  This summer I expanded the learning programs to Fridays too.  So all summer long, we have been in three local parks on Tuesdays and Fridays.  We’ve added a subheading to our learning programs and have been calling them “Build It” Workshops and “Learn It” Workshops depending on our focus.

Today’s Study Skills Workshop is a “Learn It” Workshop.  You can see more stories about our workshops here and more stories will be posted soon.
Brilliant Builders  Build It Workshop
Lego Racers Build It Workshop
Clean Water  Learn It Workshop
Solar Science Learn It Workshop
Flying High Build It Workshop
Snack Lab Learn It Workshop
Summer Games and Nature Science Learn It Workshop

The park is such a great place to do learning programs, because I have the use of a great big open shelter, tables with built in seats, bathrooms, and a wonderful playground for the kids to run, jump, climb, and enjoy each other’s company.  It is so great because we get to enjoy the fresh air and learn at the same time!

Study Skills:


Our guest speaker was Tony Carboni from the Sunshine Learning Center in Asheville, NC.  He taught the kids a fun and useful technique for memorizing lists of information.  Today, the kids worked on learning to memorize a list of 10 random items.

He taught the kids and parents a system of association for things that are unrelated, by teaching the brain how to relate the items to something we will remember.  It was fascinating. 

The technique involved asigning a rhyming word for each number.  The amount of numbers and rhyming words all depends on the number of items you need to memorize on your list. We were memorizing 10 items, so we needed 10 rhyming words, one rhyming word for each number. 

Then he added a mental picture association for each rhyming word. By combining a number, a rhyming word, and a mental picture of the item you need to remember, the brain was able to quickly recall all the information.

For example, say you need to remember glasses on the list.  Lets say that glasses are the 10th item on your list.  Say the number TEN and the rhyming word DEN.  Then think of the mental picture of a lion in its den with its arms on glasses.   Now, when you need to recall the list you say the numbers, rhyming words, and the mental picture pops in your head and you remember glasses.

It was amazing how quickly the kids picked up this technique. Tony explained you could remember thousands of unrelated bits of information from lists using this technique. 

He spoke for 30 minutes, and at the end of his presentation, several children stood up and had completely memorized 10 difficult unrelated items both forwards and backwards and were able to skip around and still get them all.

My 12 year old son, and another boy age 13 both volunteered to show the method in action.  Both boys were able to recount all 10 items by going through this process.  I also checked with my son 5 days after the workshop.   I said to him, tell me what you remember from the list of items at the workshop, and he repeated everything again to me, perfectly.  It is unbelievable that 10 random items are still stuck in his memory after 5 days.


Next, I shared note taking techniques with the kids.  We focussed on three specific kinds of note taking, the Cornell method, mapping, and outlining.  These systems work very well for our family, and many students report success using them.  You can read more about these note taking methods and see examples on the links below:

Cornell Note Taking Method

                    Mapping Note Taking Method

                    Outlining Note Taking Method

We also discussed breaking our studies down into managable goals by using yearly, monthly, and weekly planning sheets and calendars that mom’s and kids can write on and keep track of their assignments and their progress in their studies.  You can find lots of free resources for planning sheets on the internet.  Check out some of these resources from Donna Young.  She has wonderful free printables for every area of managing your home and school.  Just select what you need, print it, and put it in your binder or hang it on your wall at home.  It is easy to reach your study goals (or any goals or work) when you have broken them down into managible steps and planned them out on paper.

Homeschool Calendar

                    Homeschool Planners

                    How To Plan Your Schoolwork

When planning your studies, be sure to look at the overall picture and break it into manageble steps and include: weekly planning; monthly planning; yearly planning.

We also discussed using modified workboxes and color coordinating the kids school work to help them develop a mental picture of what they need to do next and help them stay organized.  This method also encourages them to work independantly when that is desired.  We discussed the use of a binder to help organize a portfolio of the work they accomplished during the upcoming school year.  I hope to host a future workshop on how to use various techniques such a workboxes soon.  Our family has been using modified workboxes since we began homeschooling and it has really helped us.  I have modified and tweeked the workbox system each year to meet our needs as we change and grow as a family.


The kids then decorated and personalized their own three ring binders and folders for school.  This was such a fun hands on craft project to do.


We used over 20 different colors of permanent markers with bold, bright and metalic colors.  We also used colored duct tape and lots of different stickers: scrap booking stickers, three dimensional stickers, and color your own stickers for this project.  Their notebooks turned out awesome and so unique!

Gutzy Gear:
Next we talked about Gutzy Gear strap covers and patches. 

Gutzy Gear is a brand of strap personalization gear. You can transform anything with straps such as backpacks, duffle bags, book bags, computer bags, camera bags, purses, seat belts, luggage pulls, guitar or musical instrument straps or case straps, etc. with Gutzy Gear strap covers and embroidered patches. No sewing is required. 


With Gutzy Gear, you will be able to transform your backpack from average to awesome! Gutzy Gear strap covers easily attach to any bag and Gutsy Gear removable patches go onto the strap covers. The strap covers wrap around any existing strap and secure with velcro. The patches also attach with velcro and are quick and easy to change as often as you like. This feature allows kids to change them as often as they like.

Kids can get together and trade their patches like trading cards. It is a fun, easy, and a creative way to personalize their backpacks and other items that have straps.

You can choose from an amazing list of patches:
                    Gutzy Patches List 1
                    Gutzy Patches List 2

Gutzy Gear Strap Covers and Patches are available online through the Gutzy Gear website, and retailers near you.  Check the website for a full list of stores selling them.

We drew tickets for lots of Gutzy Gear prizes, goodie bags filled with school supplies and candy, packs of markers, folders, and student planners.  I just love doing giveaways and handing out prizes!

Gutzy Contests:

Right now, Gutzy Gear is hosting two different contests. One is a Gutzy Gear Patch contest and you design your own patch and send in a picture to Gutzy. The second contest is “How Do You Get Your Gutzy On?” and you must send in your picture showing how you use your Gutzy Gear. The prize for the Gutzy Gear contest is gift cards to spend at Toys R Us. The grand prize is a $500 card, and there are several smaller prizes too.

Gutzy Gear Patch Craft:

Next the kids made their own personal designs for a Gutzy Gear Patch and we took pictures to send in to Gutzy Gear.  It would be so exciting if Gutzy Gear chooses some of them to make future patches with.  The kids did such a great job creating these patches and had so much fun showing off their creations to their friends.  Here are just a few of the patches the kids designed.



Fellowship, Picnic, and Games:

We played several games, enjoyed playing on the playground, and visiting with our friends too.  We also ate a delicious picnic lunch together.



This was such a fun party / workshop.  I am so excited we were able to host this.  Having a special “Back To School”  focus really helped the kids get ready for a new school year.  We enjoyed learning some great study skills, personalizing our school folders, and personalizing our backpack straps with Gutzy Gear.  

Tony from the Sunshine Learning Center is offering a month of free math classes to kids in the Asheville and Charlotte North Carolina areas, and Greenville South Carolina areas.  Be sure to check out the Sunshine Learning Center to find out more.

You can connect with Gutzy Gear on their website and on Gutzy Gear on Facebook too.

My family made a short video of the Gutzy Gear party, and the strap covers and patches we put on our backpacks at home.  They all look so cute in their decked out backpacks. 

Disclaimer: Special thanks to Gutzy Gear and Mom Select for giving me this product review party opportunity.   I recieved Gutzy Gear as a member of Mom Select for the purpose of writing an honest review.  All opinions expressed are my own.  Special thanks also to Tony Carboni from the Sunshine Learning Center for sharing his knowledge with the kids at this workshop.

This post will be linked up with
Raising Homemakers
Sharing Time

Please share.

Hearts For Hearts Party and Clean Water Workshop

Got a minute to lend your ear?  I have got a story to tell you.  I was recently given the opportunity to host a Hearts for Hearts Girls Party.  My objective was to review this product, invite several girls to this party to discuss the Hearts for Hearts Girls doll line, talk about the charity World Vision, and share in some great party fun together. 

The Plan

I commenced to planning the party.  I was sent two dolls, some bracelets, pretend passports, and a list with suggested party games and finger food ideas to host the party with.  But as I put the party plans together, it soon became apparent that boys were interested in this party too. 

I spoke to several girls about coming to a doll party, including my neighbors and my own daughter.  They were thrilled!  Several families I spoke with had both daughters and sons.  The boys were a little jealous that the girls were going to have a party and boys were not invited.  All the children agreed they would like to participate and requested that boys be included as well as girls.  So we expanded the party into a learning workshop.  I sent out invitations by email to all our friends and both girls and boys accepted. 

Then I got really busy gathering up additional materials such as art supplies (permanent markers, stickers, construction paper, scissors, crayons, glue, hot glue, pipe cleaners, recyclable),  a globe of the world, two Green Science Clean Water science kits, extra sand, charcoal, pea gravel, filters, containers, 6 brightly colored 1 gallon buckets, 1 five gallon bucket, 4 gallons of drinking water, four different coloring pages printed back to back, and lots of supplies, plates, cups, rice, lentils, rolling pin, crock pot, electric skillet, etc.  I secured the shelter at the local park to host the party/workshop.  

This party/workshop turned out to be AWESOME!  It lasted four hours and included a meal too.  I am so glad we did this. Check out what these awesome kids did to learn about Hearts for Hearts, World Vision, and Clean Water.

Hearts For Hearts & World Vision Charity Organization

World Vision is a charity organization that does a huge outreach in developing countries around the world. They have many programs like sponsoring a child, micro loans for start up business, building houses and schools, food, medical care, and more.  World Vision also has a program called the Clean Water Project, and puts wells in villages so safe clean water is accessible to everyone.

World Vision has partnered with Hearts for Hearts Girls dolls by Playmate Toys, to reach our youth of today and help them see they can make a positive difference in people’s lives. Hearts for Hearts dolls are beautiful life like dolls fashioned after real girls from various countries around the world. The dolls are dressed in authentic clothing and accessories from their culture.

You can read about the dolls and the real girls stories and diaries on the website  
Currently, there are 8 different dolls available:
            Nahji from India and her language is Hindi
            Zelia from Brazil and her language is Portuguese
            Dell from the USA and her language is English
            Lilian from Belarus and her language is Belarusian
            Tipi from Laos and her language is Lao
            Consuelo from Mexico and her language is Spanish
            Rahel from Ethiopia and her language is Amharic
            Lauryce from New Orleans and her language is Creole.

Each doll also comes with a story book explaining the life of the real little girl the doll was inspired by. Each of these real life girls are doing something amazing to help their community overcome the lack of basic needs like clean water, sanitation, housing, education, poverty, and more, and their inspiring story is in the book.  Each time a doll is purchased, proceeds are sent to World Vision to further the humanitarian projects in the country the doll featured.

There is a lot of great information for kids on the website.  There are some interactive computer games too .

These dolls are a great inspiration for kids and adults.  They are adorable to play with.  They are a beautiful collectors item too.  They would make a wonderful gift to a special child in your life, a classroom, and a sunday school room too.  These would be so nice to have in quiet play areas in offices too, such as a realtor office or dentist office.  It would be awesome to teach cultural awareness classes with these dolls.  I would love to have the whole set as they are very special dolls with a wonderful message of courage and love for the needs of others. 

The Need For Clean Water

Did you know that less than 1% of the entire world’s water water is available for drinking and accessible to people?  1%.  Think about that for a minute.  The other 99% of water is filled with salt, or is frozen, or is deep underground.  Does this amaze you?  It amazed me as I researched this topic.

Wow, less than 1% of the earth’s water is accessible surface water in the form of lakes, rivers, and streams.  All other water is either too salty to use in the ocean, frozen in glaciers, or stored in underground aquifers. Though the USA and many developed countries have access to clean water (because of an abundance of natural and man-made lakes, rivers and streams, and technology to purify polluted water, desalinate salt water and access underground water), the majority of people on the earth do not have easy access.

Many people on earth have to struggle to access clean safe water.  Many go to extreme measures to acquire water.  Some folks walk several hours a day to a location that may have water that is disease carrying, and get a bucket of water and walk back home for several more hours and repeat this every day. The water may be so dirty, that they are often sick with parasites, virus, bacteria, and many die from these conditions. 

If only 1% of the water is available to use, how do people get enough water to drink, bathe, cook, clean, water their animals, water their crops,
and other things we need water for?

Every day at least 3,000 children die from diarrhea as a direct consequence of a lack of safe water source.  What?  You thought children die from a horrific accident, or some invisible mosquito carrying disease?  Well, some do die from these, but the biggest killer of children is a lack of safe drinking water.

As a Christian, this weights heavy on my heart.  Jesus felt it was so important to offer a cup of water in “his name” and refers to this in the scriptures.  Yet, thousands of children and adults are dying because there is no access to a cup of clean water.

Hearts For Hearts Party & Clean Water Workshop

This whole issue of “Clean Water” became the mission of our party / workshop.  We had 16 kids (nine girls, and seven boys), 6 moms, and 2 babies attend.  This was such a great group of kids / families all together.  This was my favorite party / learning workshop I have hosted all year.  I love talking about cultures, geography, and science.

One of the dolls I was sent was Naji from India. She is absolutely beautiful in representing her ethnic and cultural background. We chose to focuss our workshop around this doll and on the need for clean water in rural villages in India.  

First of all, the kids listened to me describe the need for clean, safe, potable water in the world.  Then we compared how they access and use water at home on a daily basis, and how kids in developing countries such as India use water. 

We talked about how they get their water each day in the USA.  We started off by having the kids identify all the ways they acquire and use water each day:
            shower / bathe
            make food
            wash dishes
            wash clothes
            flush toilet
            wash hands
            brush teeth

They also identified other groups in the USA who need water for specific tasks:
            farmers to water crops and water livestock
            producers who make products that use water during the manufacturing process
            farmers to wash produce before selling it to the public or to the stores
            water power plants
            doctors and hospitals need water to clean their instruments and prevent 
            the spread of disease
            cars need water to cool the engine, etc.

Then we talked about how a child in a village in India may have to wake up and walk several miles to fetch a bucket of dirty water to bring back and use for drinking, preparing food, washing dishes, washing clothes, bathing, etc.  She may have to make several trips to get enough water for the day.  It may take her several hours and she might not be able to go to school because she is too busy fetching water for her family’s needs so they can survive.  The water could make her or her family sick with diarrhea and parasites.  But they must have water, so she continues on despite the risk.

Make It Relevant:

Learning is living it! Exploring life with hands on experiences my kids and I can relate too.  I teach in a very hands on way.  I wanted to convey to the kids some aspects of what life is like with difficult to access water resources.  I wanted to make it relevant for them and enrich their learning experience.


We divided the kids into three teams.  Each team was given a bucket and a small dipping cup.  They had to walk a long ways (per the kids) from the picnic shelter to the public bathrooms to get to a location where water was accessibleThis activity represented a child in a village in India walking several miles to fetch water from a local watering hole or stream.


Then they needed a way to collect the water.  There water was available from a small sink.  Their buckets would not fit under the faucet.  They had to use their small cup to fill their buckets with water from the bathroom sink.  It took a long time to gather enough water to fill their buckets.

Then carry the full bucket all the way back to the shelter.  The water was very special and they were given instructions to be very careful not to spill it.  This activity represented a child in an Indian village carrying the water several miles back home to their house in their village for their family to use.


One team was able to make it back with a full bucket, without spilling a drop, and the other two teams spilt just a little along the way.  But over all, all three teams returned with their bucket of water intact.

Science Experiment:


Next, the teams made their bucket of water into a yucky mess with sticks, coffee grounds, dirt, trash, rocks, and hair.  This represented the polluted water that many children must use in developing countries as they have no other resource than the filthy water in the local lake or water hole that animals and people all use.  

We examined a clean water filtration experiment from a Green Science Clean Water kit and learned the various parts of a basic filtering system.  See the picture above: gravel, sand, charcoal, and a filtering membrane (this is a coffee filter, but you could use layers of cloth, cotton, or other materials).

Then the three teams built their own filtering systems to try to clean the polluted water to make it usable again.  Each team was given a pop bottle cut in half, a screen, rubber band, a filter, charcoal, sand, and gravel to create their own water filtration systems.  


They carefully scooped up their polluted water from their supply buckets, carried the polluted water to the table, and slowly poured it into their team’s filtering system.  They were amazed at how each layer of the filter removed debrie and contaminants.

This science experiment helped the kids understand how to remove pollution from contaminated water.  The water would still need to be sanitized before using for human consumption.  If people in developing countries had access to materials to build adequate filtering and sanitizing systems, they can turn bad water into useful water for human needs.

Count The Cost:

Do dig a basic well for a few families, costs about $5000 -$12,000 depending on where in the world it is drilled.

To dig a deeper 900ft well for a village with a storage tank can cost as much as $30,000 or more.

If you would like to know more about how a well is constructed, please see the description on wikipedia about water wells.

Costs to build a water treatment facility can vary widely depending on the extent of the processing systems built and the number of people it will serve.  I researched small facilities with costs of about $3 million dollars, to average size $30 million dollars, to larger facilities costing $300 million dollars and more.  

Coloring Pages:

The kids were given coloring pages that included geography, technology, engineering, and science to further their learning.    I love to further the STEM Initiative with kids(Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics).  These were great coloring pages with an educational message!

One page explained how water is drawn from a lake, filtered, transported, cleaned and sanitized, stored, and then accessible to homes through various piping and sewer systems.  This page comes from a mini book with Thirstin, a small character that teaches kids about water.

Another page explained how underground water is available in a water aquifer, and can be accessed through a well then piped into a home.  This page is also from the Thirstin mini book.

 The next coloring page was a world map with places to label seven continents, by Crayola.

And the final coloring page was a map of India, made by Homeschool Creations.

Giving Banks Craft:

Next the kids decorated giving banks.  The purpose of the giving bank is to help save up their loose change to send to World Vision Clean Water Projects.  Parents were sent a link in an email to know where to send their donations.  

Each child used a container with a screw type lid (such as a peanut butter jar, ovalteen jar, grated parmesan cheese jar, etc.)  This was a good way to recycle these containers.  The kids will be able to reach their hand in to count their savings with the screw type lid and large opening. Counting their savings is a great way to practice math and life skills and help them keep track of their giving goals.


Kids could decorate their banks however they wanted.  We had various art supplies available on the tables.  Some drew scenes and messages on construction paper, then glued it to the jars. 


Others drew right onto their jars.  Many used various different stickers to create their masterpiece.  Some used special scissors to cut shapes of paper. 

Some used a hot glue gun to attach different items such as bottle caps, toilet paper tubes, and jewels, to their jars and make their creations stand out. 

This was a very creative and open time for the kids to express themselves.
We ended up with banks that looked amazing.  Some were decorated to look like water in lakes and rivers. 

Some were animals such as pigs, birds, and dinosaurs.  Some of the creations were very personal for the kids.  One looked like a river and a person was collecting gold from the water.  One looked like a well for a village.  One was a sign with a message about giving to help others. 

Counting Coins:

When the kids were done decorating their banks, I gave each one 25 pennies to get started saving money in their giving bank.  They had fun counting the coins and hearing them drop into their banks.

Fellowship & Meal….and a Cooking Lesson!

After designing our giving banks, we ate a meal together.  I invited all of the moms to bring something to share for our meal.  We had a great selection to fill our plates and stomachs with including sandwiches, vegetables, fruits, chips, dips, and more.


Keeping with a focus on India, I brought dahl, rice, and chapattis to share, and another mom brought raita.  This would make a complete meal in India.  I learned to make these dishes while living in college among students from India.  My best friend was from New Deli, India.  We met at an International Christian Fellowship meeting through a missionary, and we spent five years together doing everything and sharing our lives, and her way of life became a huge influence on me. 



I will post more about the recipes for these dishes, and about my life living among Indian and other international students in future stories.  I will come back and link up the recipes here in case you would like to make these dishes too.  Basically dahl is a mixture of red lentils, sauted onions, spices, and water cooked together.  The rice is a mixture of 1/2 Jasmine rice, and 1/2 Basmatti rice, water, sea salt, and ghee (clarified butter).  The raita is a mixture of plain yogurt, cucumber, herbs, and sea salt.  The chapattis (bread from India) are a mixture of flour, water, milk, sea salt, oil and cooked on a hot skillet.

I brought the dough for the chapattis and taught the kids how to make them.  They loved this!  The kids pinched off a walnut sized piece of dough, roll it into a ball with their hands, then roll it out into a thin circle with a rolling pin.  They learned to turn the dough each time they rolled the pin over it so it would keep a nice circle shape. 


Then they placed their chapatti onto a very hot electric skillet being careful not to get burned
.  It took about two or three minutes, and then they flipped the chapatti like a pancake over to the other side.  The chapatti was done when it got small brown spots on both sides.  It tastes like a tortilla and is kind of a cross between a tortilla and pitta bread.  It is delicious and a lot of fun to make!


The kids also played on the playground, and enjoyed each other’s fellowship playing games and talking together.


More Party Fun:

Each of the children received a pretend passport.


The first page includes a place to draw a picture of themselves, and write down some personal information and what country they are from.

Inside the passport are colorful pages with the eight different dolls listed, their names, country, language, and how to say hello in their language.   Then there is a place to put a stamp or sticker on each page after the children learn to say hello in that language. 

Each kid who attended the party / workshop received a Hearts for Hearts Girls bracelet to remind them of the fun we had together today, but more importantly to remind them of other kids in the world who need clean water and other basic needs and that together we can help make a difference.

We also held a raffle drawing for a door prize.  The winner could have their choice of prizes.  The kids had so much fun picking out their prize. 

All of the kids wished they could have won a clean water science kit and a doll.  I wish I had one of each prize to give to each kid who came today, but that wasn’t possible on my budget.

All of the kids went home with a coupon their families can use to buy a Hearts for Hearts Girls doll at a discount.  These dolls are wonderful to play with and enjoy.  They are very well made, posable, and have authentic clothing and accessories.  Everyone will love playing with them.  These coupons are a great way to buy them for a birthday or holiday gift, or just for fun, at a discount. 

Hearts for Hearts Girls dolls are available at Toys R Us,, and the Hearts for Hearts Girls website.  Keep your eyes open as they will soon be in more stores too.  Proceeds from sales of Hearts for Hearts Girls dolls goes back to World Vision to support various projects to help people with basic needs to better life for all of mankind.  This is a great charitable cause to support and teach your children about.

Please read the World Vision website if you would like to offer support or learn more about the Clean Water Projects.  You can connect with Hearts for Hearts Girls on Facebook and on the Hearts for Hearts website.

Disclaimer:  Special thanks to Hearts for Hearts Girls and Mommy Parties for giving me this review party opportunity. I received the Hearts for Hearts Girls dolls and bracelets mentioned in this story in exchange for hosting this party and writing an honest review.  All opinions expressed are my own, and also of those who attended the workshop.  

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Sunprint Fabric Squares

We hosted a fun Solar Science Workshop in the park in July.  The was one of my favorite workshops we did this year. It was jam packed with so much learning fun.  Be sure to read about other workshops we have enjoyed this year and all the fun learning adventures we have been doing at Take Action Tuesday.

Our Solar Workshop contained learning activities about the Sun and Solar Power. 
This Solar Workshop story will be posted in two parts:

                Solar Science Workshop Part One: Sunprint Fabric Squares

                Solar Science Workshop Part Two:  Solar Ovens and Solar Power.


you heard of Sunprint Fabric? 

Click Image To Close

It is a special fabric that captures the energy of the sun to make a “reverse” photograph.   It comes in craft kits and is fun for both kids and adults.  This learning project targets NAEYC Curriculum Area for Cognitive Development: Creative Expression and Appreciation for the Arts.

To make this craft, it is a simple process of gathering items you would like to photograph, placing them on the Sunprint Fabric, placing all of this in the sun, waiting 15 minutes, rinsing the fabric in cold water, and letting it dry.

The fabric starts out a green color, but after it is exposed to the sun, it turns blue.  Once you have rinsed it, the area that was covered by the object you placed on it turns white.  It is like a white shadow of the object.  Any of the material exposed to the sun becomes blue, but material not exposed becomes white, thereby making a shadow type of photograph of the object that was placed on it.

You can place just about any object you want onto the fabric as long as it lays flat and makes contact with the material to block the sunlight from getting to the material.

I brought a huge box of random toys for the kids to choose items from, and some of the kids gathered items they found in the park too including plants (flowers and leaves from weeds in the grass), wooden sticks, and rocks.

Each person made their own personal art with items they put together.

After 15 minutes in the sun, the kids rinsed their fabric in cold water.


Then laid them out to dry.  As the fabric dries, their art appears.  It was amazing to see these green squares of fabric transform into blue and white works of art.

On a recent trip to Roper Mountain Science Center in Greenville, SC my family enjoyed looking at several beautiful quilts made using the sun printing process. 

These quilts were beautiful and the details of the photographs on the fabric were amazing.  You could see lots of details in each one. 

I encouraged the kids at our Solar Science Workshop to take their finished Sunprint Fabric Squares home and frame them for their wall, or turn it into a pillow or something they can enjoy for years to come just like these quilts we saw at the museum.  Other ideas are to sew several together to make a collage, a beautiful quilt, a curtain, or sew one square onto a shirt, etc.  These would make wonderful personalized Christmas gifts to give to grandparents from their grandchildren.  So many great things these can be used to decorate with and learn about science and art too.

Sunprint products come in both fabric and paper kits and are available at Discount School Supply online store.  You can buy the kits in different sizes.  The 25 pack of Sunprint Fabric Squares retails for $20.99   The 12 pack of Sunprint Paper Kit retails for $7.44 and they have a large 12 pack of Sunprint Paper in a kit that retails for $12.99.  They offer free shipping on orders over $79. 

We had such a fun time creating these special works of
art and learning about the power of the sun.  The Sunprint Fabric Squares were a perfect art / science craft to do with the kids for this workshop.  I want to thank Discount School Supply for asking us to review this craft project.

                                                 Arts & Crafts on Any Budget! 

Disclaimer: I received the product mentioned above in exchange for writing an honest review.  All opinions expressed are my own honest opinion.

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Air Power & Lego Racers Build It Workshop

Today’s workshop was so much fun.  We learned about Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics using balloons and Legos.  Our focus today was to understand how air can be used as a source of energy to transport objects.

First of all, lets start with these two definitions:

        Power is the force, strength, or ability to do or accomplish something.  
                                                                (source: The American Heritage Children’s Dictionary pp. 567)

        Air power is the ability to move an object with air.

To demonstrate how air can be used as power, the first thing we did was to do experiments with balloons.  All of the kids were given their own balloon of a different color to use.  Balloons are able to hold compressed air.  We blew up the balloons with air we breathed out of our bodies.  You can also blow up balloons with air pumps, air compressors, and things such as helium gas tanks.

                    Air As Energy

                    Put your mouth on the open end of your balloon. 

                    Blow air your balloon.  

                    Pinch the end closed so no air escapes. 

                    What do you observe?

                    When the teacher says let it go, let go of the end. 

                    What happened?

                    Why do you think this happened?

The kids had lots of fun blowing up their balloons and letting them loose.  The balloons traveled all over the place.  They shot forward randomly and looped all around to the left and right through the air above us.  Compressed air escaping from the balloon was propelling the balloon forward, powering the balloon to travel randomly through the air.

                    Air Power Energy For Transport

                    Tape one end of fishing line or string to a table or chair.

                    Thread a straw onto the fishing line or string.

                    Tape the other end of the line or string to another table or chair.

                    Tape a balloon to the middle of the straw.

                    Blow up the balloon and pinch the end closed so no air escapes.

                    What do you observe?

                    Starting near one table or chair, release the pinched end of the balloon.

                    What happened?

                    Why do you think it happened?


Instead of allowing the balloon to travel at random, we can control the direction of the balloon by attaching it to an object. 

Tie a string onto a solid object at one end of the room.  Tape a balloon to a straw.  Thread the straw onto the string. 

Tie the other end of the string to another solid object. 

Fill the balloon with air.  Pinch the end of the balloon to hold the air in.  When ready, let go.  The balloon will travel along the straight line of the string.

The straw and string provide control and guide the balloon as air power propels it forward. Other examples of guiding objects in real life and controlling the direction of a moving object might be: a bullet traveling through a gun barrel, or a vehicle at an automatic car wash. The vehicle is put in neutral when it’s wheels are placed on a track at the car wash.  The rails and track guide the vehical to travel forward in one direction.  Can you think of more examples?

The Lego Building Challenge

Use air as power to transport a Lego Race Car.

The kids were divided into three teams.  They followed blueprints to build three different Lego race cars from Lego Racers kits.

The cars have a special hard plastic chamber that receives air that has been compressed by a plunger.  The chamber connects to the plunger. The plunger is a flexible plastic “accordion” type hollow device.  The walls have folds that are flat but when compressed they fold like an accordion.  When the plunger has been compressed, it sends compressed air into the chamber on the car.  When the chamber on the car is full of air, the force causes it to shoot forward and disconnect from the plunger.  The compressed air converts into energy to push the car forward.  You can read more about the science involved in this in another story located here.

Math Connection


Place the finished car on the floor.  Connect the chamber of the car to the stomper.  Sit on your knees and using your hands stacked together, palms flat, stomp the stomper with the force of your hands.  You can also use your foot to step on the stomper, however it is more difficult to control your applied force and some kids find this action more difficult than using their hands. The Lego Racers car should shoot across the floor when the stomper action is applied. 


Using a measuring tape, measure the distance the car traveled.   Record your distance in the chart below.   Repeat this process 2 more times for a total of 3 measurements.


Record Distances & Find The Average

Team 1









Average Distance



Team 2









Average Distance



Team 3









Average Distance



Find the AVERAGE distance traveled by adding the three distances together and dividing by three.

___________ + _________ + ______________= _______________  divide by 3 =_________________

Race 1 + race 2 + race 3 = combined totals divided by 3 = Average distance

Write your average distance on the chart above.


Re-engineer or modify design:

Now modify the car if desired and repeat the process above.  

What did you modify? 

Did the car go a longer or shorter distance?  


How far did it travel?

All the pictures from today are in the video below.  I hope you will take a look at our video and enjoy our fun learning adventure.  It is so much fun to learn with hands on projects like this.

The kids were given packets with lots of learning material to take home and further their learning.  It should keep them busy for a couple more weeks of learning activities.   The packet included: 
                Math Connections
                Science Connections
                Technology Connections
                Engineering Connections
                Geography Connections
                Research Connections
                Writing Connections
                Arts & Crafts Connections
Internet Links for further study
                Field Trip Ideas
                Coloring Pages
                Vocabulary Words

This was absolutely one of the funniest learning units I have ever put together. I just love using Lego’s to teach the kids.  Check out this 5 minute video about our fun Build It Workshop.

No kidding, there really is such a thing as an airpowered car.  Check out the AIRPOD car powered by fresh air.  It was developed in France, and will be marketed in Asia according to the article.  Here is a wikipedia explanation of a Compressed Air Car.  Various companies have been developing air powered cars since 1999 and they have been available to consumers since 2002.  Even Honda has an airpowered car that came on the market in 2010. 

I am amazed at the inventions and progress in technology of products to create a greener world with less harmful effects by reducing some of the use of burning fossil fuels.  Before researching this topic, I did not know there was an actual car on the market you could drive that was powered by air.  You may soon see air powered cars available in car lots near you, right next to other “green” technology vehicles like electric, solar, and others.  For sure this new generation of kids will see such technology available in their lifetime.

If you would like to help us in our fundraising efforts to support our 4H club.  Please see the information posted here at FUNDRAISER.  Be sure to read all of our 4H Lego and Robotics Academy stories.  Check out our 4H Build It Workshop stories too.   Thanks in advance for any donations you can give to help our 4H kids reach their learning goals.

This story will be linked up with
No Time For Flash Cards
Science Sunday
Raising Homemakers
Sharing Time

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Brilliant Builders Build It Workshop

Oh my goodness!  This is a fun project you just got to try out with your own kids, school, church group, or your club!!!

Building with this set is a fun way to learn about Math, Science, Engineering, and Technology. Plus, it is just FUN, FUN, FUN!!!
Brilliant Builders Straws and Connectors from Discount School Supply is a construction set of 705 pieces and comes with blueprint instructions to build 5 completely different projects.  But don’t stop with just 5 projects, the amount of projects you could build with these construction kits is endless.

When I say build a project, I mean BUILD A PROJECT!  These construction sets build projects that are SUPER-SIZED!  Whether you build your project indoors or outside, you will need a large area of floor space to work.

Though it comes in a box, I bought plastic totes to carry my sets in. These totes make it easy to keep track of all my pieces. The boxes were thin and kind of fall apart from the weight of all the construction pieces, and I was sure I would loose some if I didn’t switch them to a sturdy tote.

We have two sets and will be using these in building competitions in some of our upcoming  Lego and Robotics Academy 4H club meetings.  We hold a building competition during our monthly meetings and this will be a wonderful item to add into our learning about math and construction engineering.  I am especially looking forward to learning about load bearing walls and building houses and bridges with these sets as the kids learn about this area of construction engineering.

This summer our 4H club is hosting several Build It Workshops.  Today’s Build It Workshop theme was Brilliant Builders.  How cool, the workshop and the construction set have the same name!  The totes were very handy for the kids to carry, help me load and unload, and to transport our construction sets to the workshop.

At the workshop, we divided the kids into two teams.  Each team had their own table and a large area of floor space to work with.  We laid out their blueprints and construction sets on their table.

They began by discussing a few construction terms, like blueprints, elevations, load-bearing wall, angles, connections, and materials used in various forms of construction (ie. lumber, brick, concrete, stone, nails, glue, glass, and other building projects).   We looked outside and identified various things on different elevations, such as houses, the picnic shelter, the building we were meeting in, the parking area, the playground, and the baseball field.  We discussed how blueprints often have a page for the elevation and foundation, then a page for the structure, and a page for the various other things happening such as plumbing, electrical, windows and doors, finish work etc.  I will be providing a set of blueprints for the children to look at during our next meeting. 

Next the kids looked at their building plans and began separating the connectors that came in the kit.  The first step in building their project required them to count how many of the 8 inch pieces and how many of the connectors were needed to create the foundation of the structure.

Then they started building their foundation.  They had to keep counting as they worked to be sure to get the right amount so their structure would take on the correct size and shape.

There was some freedom in choosing the colors of their project.  The kits come with RED, BLUE, GREEN, ORANGE, and YELLOW pieces.  One team designed a color coded plan for the different levels in their project, and the other team used all of the colors randomly on all of the levels.  Each team forged ahead, connecting, counting, planning, and building.

It was really exciting to see their structures begin to take shape.

Meticulously they added piece after piece creating levels that rose their projects higher and higher into the air.

Taking their time to make sure all the pieces were completely connected was a very important step.   The connections had a counter force from the curve of the structure putting pressure against them.  The connections also had to bear the weight of the new levels added on top. 


After the first four levels were constructed, the kids had to measure and cut smaller pieces according to the building plans.

The blue prints showed various size pieces of whole, 1/2, 1/4, and 1/8 sizes.  The kids placed their desired piece they wanted to cut on the measuring line, marked the desired length with a pencil, and then cut it with heavy duty scissors.  I brought my poultry shears along for this job.  This is very thick plastic so you want a heavy duty cutting scissors to cut through it without damaging it.

We had all the kids take turns measuring and cutting.

The shorter length pieces gave new dimension to the design.  It created new shapes and brought the curves in tighter.

After building for a while the kids took a break, got something to drink, and played on the swings outside for a bit.  Then it was back to building some more.  For fun, the kids measured how high their structure was. 

Their 4 levels came to 25 and 1/2 inches. That is progress!

Just 6 more levels to go and a few fun additions to create the details of the structure. Can you guess what they are building?


The local parks and recreation workers stopped in to see what we were building today.  They are very supportive of our 4H club and our projects.  I just love it when the guys stop and chat with the kids for a few minutes.  Having adults show interest in what they are learning is a real encouragement for the kids.

My oldest son, age 12, put a lot of thought into building this sculpture.  He planned out the color scheme.  He cut parts to length and counted out what his teamates needed to continue connecting all the pieces.

The next two levels of rings were larger than the first six rings.  These stuck out past the whole structure.

Each step requires thought and concentration.

The top of our structures were much more challenging than the bottom. Fitting pieces of various sizes together was a big challenge. For each level of rings, the circles got smaller and smaller by connecting long pieces with shorter pieces.

As we approached the finish line, the kids got very silly.


Finally, after two and a 1/2 hours, time was up, and it was complete.  Well, at least one was complete.  We ran out of time to completely finish the second structure.  We decided to call it quits at that point.  It was hot in the building (no airconditioning), and the kids were all hungry and ready to call it a day.

The kids were very happy with their structures.  This was a SUPER SIZED FUN project to build.  The finished structure was a little over 6 feet tall. 

This Build It Workshop helped further the STEM initiative with these kids.  They are learning about Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics.  In addition to learning during the workshop, each child will receive a packet of learning materials to take home, with lesson plans, science, math, art, and more to further what they have learned today.  Be sure to check out our other stories from our 4H Lego and Robotics Academy and 4H Build It Workshops to learn more. 

These rocket ships took 2 1/2 hours to build, but only took a few minutes to take down and put away.  Though the connections are strong, when you release a few of the lower connections, the structure easily comes down.  It looked like a tornado had hit.  In construction terms, this makes it easy to understand how a tall building can crumble when you damage or remove some of the supports in the walls; the weight of the building causes it to collapse.

The kids loved this part.  If it didn’t take so long to build, they would want to repeat the take down part again and again.


Our Brilliant Builder Straws and Connectors kits came with plans to build this rocket ship, a mansion house, the Golden Gate Bridge, a hot air balloon,  and the Eiffel Tower.  You can find directions to build several more projects with these construction sets on the Roylco (manufacturer) website.


The Brilliant Builders Straws and Connectors 705 piece kit retails for $42.99 and is on sale for $38.92    The Brilliant Builders Straws and Connectors 230 piece kit retails for $16.99 and is on sale for $13.99   Both are available from Discount School Supply.  

Discount School Supply also has thousands of other products ready to meet your homeschool needs. Check out – Save Up to 70% Off Retail Every Day! Click Here!  Be sure to stop in at Discount School Supply and find out all the amazing products they have to offer.  Another great deal is that they offer free shipping on in-stock orders of $79 or more. They have a wonderful customer service department to help answer your questions too.

The Brilliant Builders Straw and Connectors construction sets are designed for children ages 4 and up.  But this is fun for kids of all ages and adults too.  This product will be fun for familys and groups to play with.  But even more fun to add into math, engineering, and science learning, use in unit studies, and creative art projects too. 

We loved building with this construction set and we are looking forward to using it again and again. In addition to our 4H Club meetings and workshops, our kids will be constructing with this set in our homeschool too.  I definately recommend this product for your home and your school!

Disclaimer:  I received the product mentioned above in exchange for writing an honest review.  All opinions expressed are my honest opinion.

This post will be linked up with
No Time For Flash Cards
Science Sunday
Raising Homemakers
Sharing Time

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